1.Chinese Entrepreneurs, Social Networks, and Guanxi
Ronald S. Burt and Katarzyna Burzynska
Intending to clear space for rigorous integrative research bridging theory and research across East and West, we highlight four conclusions from exceptional data on the networks around Chinese entrepreneurs: (1) The broker networks associated with business success in the West are also associated with success in China. (2) The trust correlates of closed networks in the West are similarly correlates in China.(3) History and trust proven in events emerge as especially important to the Chinese entrepreneurs.(4) High-quality network data on Chinese business leaders are a practical reality.We use the results to define a network perspective onguanxities that can be common ground for integrating results across East and West, and guide future research on the role networks play in Chinese business.
entrepreneurship,guanxi, social networks
2.Not Just How Much You Know: Interactional Effect of Cultural Knowledge and Metacognition on Creativity in a Global Context
Roy Y. J. Chua and Kok Yee Ng
The ability to think and solve problems creatively in a multicultural environment is critical for success in the 21stcentury. Integrating research on creative cognition and cultural intelligence, we examine the interaction effects of two cognitive capabilities – cultural knowledge and cultural metacognition – on individuals’ creativity in multicultural teams. We propose that although cultural knowledge is useful for creativity, too much knowledge can be detrimental because of cognitive overload and entrenchment. This inverted U-shape relationship however, is moderated by cultural metacognition. Results of our study support our hypothesis of an inverted U-shape relationship between cultural knowledge and creativity. As expected, we found that the curvilinear effect of cultural knowledge occurs only for individuals with low metacognition. For high cultural metacognition individuals, cultural knowledge has no effect on creativity. These findings offer new insights and practical implications for creativity in today’s global environment.
creativity, cultural intelligence, cultural metacognition, knowledge, teams
3.Organizational Imprinting And Response To Institutional Complexity: Evidence From Publicly-Traded Chinese State-Owned Firms In Hong Kong
This study seeks to answer the following question: What are the organizational attributes that influenceorganizational responses to institutional complexity? Building on core ideas of organizationalimprinting, I argue that organizational responses are influenced by the imprint from the dominant logic of organizing during the founding period and from the institutional position an organization possesses at founding. Empirically, I examine the variation in board composition of Chinese state-owned firms listed in the Hong Kong Stock Exchange market. It is found that state-owned firms founded in the market logic dominant period tend tohave more non-state directors on the board in that they were organized around the prescription of the market logic and more responsive to shareholders’ demands for legitimacy reason. Besides, state-owned firms founded by the central government agencies tend to have fewer non-state directors because they were positioned at the center of the socialist system to accomplish the strategic goals of the central government and non-state directors may challenge the vested interests. This study contributes to the organizational imprinting and institutional literature and resonates with the contemporary call for more systematic examination on organizational attributes that influence organizational responses to institutional complexity.
board composition, institutional complexity, institutional position, organizational imprinting, state-owned firms
4.How Does Culture Matter? TheXin(Heart-Mind)-based Social Competence of Chinese Executives
Hongguo Wei, Diana Bilimoria, and Shaobing Li
In this study we explore the emotional and cognitive dimensions of Chinese business leaders’ social competence. We argue for a culturally inclusive conceptualization of leader social competence and its internal structure, which takes into account Chinese indigenous features. Data were collected by critical incident interviews from 42 top executives of small- and medium-sized private enterprises in China. A total of 302 competency episodes were included in the current study. Grounded theory was used for data analysis. The following xin (heart-mind)-based social competencies were referenced in episodes of effective Chinese competency-relevant social interactions:guanxibuilding and maintenance, empathy, inspiration with wisdom, empowerment and developing others, resilience, and appreciation of problem solving. Each of these competences includes an emotional and a cognitive element and embodies dynamic interplay of the emotional and cognitive dimensions of social competence. Xin-based social competencies impact effective interactions in relational contexts that implicate the individual self, the organizational self and their interactions.The theoretical contributions and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
cognition and emotion, cognitive system of yin-yang balancing, leadership effectiveness, self and other, socialcompetence,top executives
5.Institutional Environment and IPO Strategy: A Study of ChiNext in China
Jing Zhang, Wei Zhang,Andreas Schwab,and Sipei Zhang
Taking an institution-based view, we investigate how entrepreneurs respond to immature regulatory environments in order to be listed on stock markets in countries with an emerging economy. Unlike stock markets in developed countries, in emerging markets gaining government approval for listing is a critical and unpredictable process for entrepreneurs. Hence, entrepreneurs who are preparing for a public offering might give substantially discounted shares to venture capital (VC) investors. This will lead to higher investment returns in pre-IPO deals than those at earlier stages, which distorts the risk-return tradeoff found in developed markets. In particular, the VC investors affiliated with powerful organizations that can promise entrepreneurs preferential access to stock market gatekeepers will gain even higher pre-IPO investment returns. The associated additional institutional rents earned by VC investors, however, are expected to decrease over time, as the stock markets mature. Related hypotheses with regard to the investment timing, VC firm affiliations with government agencies, securities traders, and universities are tested using data from ChiNext in China (2009–2013). This study highlights that institutional factors impactthe behavior of participants in emerging markets more than in developed markets. It also extends current theories derived almost exclusively from developed markets.
ChiNext, emerging stock markets, high-growth entrepreneurial ventures,initial public offering,institutional factors,venture capital
6.When Do Conflicts Feel Right for Prevention-Focused Individuals? The Debiasing Effect of Low Need for Closure
Zhi-Xue Zhang, Xin Wei, Melody Manchi Chao, and Yi Zheng
Both lay beliefs and research findings suggest thatpeople tend to avoid conflictsif interpersonal harmony is highly valued. Counter to this widely accepted convention, we adopt the perspective of motivated social cognition to argue that conflict avoidance is subject to the joint effect of the need for epistemic security (need for closure) and the motivation to prevent losses (prevention focus). Such effect is mediated bynegative anticipation towards the consequences of confronting conflicts.Resultsacrossthree studies indicated that individuals with relatively high need for closure and high prevention focus show the strongest conflict avoidance tendency due to their heightened negative anticipation. However, with low need for closure, the negative anticipation and conflict avoidance tendency of high prevention-focused individuals are weakened or even disappear.This research offers a novel theory about the mechanism of conflict avoidance. The findings about the debiasing role of low need for closure also provide rich implications for conflict resolutions.
conflict avoidance, motivated social cognition, need for closure, negative anticipation, prevention focus